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Sundowners Syndrome in Dogs: Symptoms and Solutions!

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Dog Health By Ben Team 10 min read May 23, 2021 52 Comments

Sundowners syndrome is a tragic medical condition that occasionally afflicts older people with dementia, Alzheimer’s, or some other type of cognitive dysfunction. However, this condition isn’t only a problem for humans; dogs can suffer from sundowners syndrome too.

As when it occurs in humans, sundowners syndrome typically causes a variety of personality changes. It may also trigger bizarre behaviors and leave your dog feeling anxious or depressed. These changes can complicate your dog’s care and make it difficult to keep him comfortable as he lives out his golden years.

Below, we’ll discuss sundowners in dogs and explain some of the most common symptoms that accompany the condition. We’ll also talk about some of the things you can do to help provide your dog with the highest quality of life possible while coping with the challenges the syndrome presents.

What Is Sundowners Syndrome?

Also called cognitive dysfunction syndrome, old-dog senility, or canine Alzheimer’s, sundowners syndrome refers to the general cognitive decline that sometimes occurs when dogs reach advanced ages.

Veterinarians aren’t exactly sure what causes the problem to manifest, but many believe that it is associated with the breakdown of the central nervous system, brain cell death, or oxidative stress. It may also be the byproduct of chemical imbalances in the brain, which may become more pronounced with age.

There is no cure for sundowners syndrome, and unfortunately, it is almost always progressive, meaning that your dog’s condition will deteriorate over time. Accordingly, dogs who are diagnosed with sundowners syndrome will battle it for the rest of their lives, and they’ll require an increasing amount of care as they grow older.

What Are the Symptoms of Sundowners Syndrome?

Although the exact symptoms caused by sundowners syndrome can vary from one individual to the next, most dogs will experience some combination of the following issues:

Disorientation

Disorientation is one of the most common symptoms exhibited by dogs with sundowners syndrome.

Your dog may, for example, appear to forget where he is, or he may run into obstacles that have been present for years. He may also fail to remember or recognize familiar activity patterns, such as when you return home after work or get ready for your daily walk.

Frequent Accidents

One of the first indicators of sundowners is often increasingly frequent accidents. Dogs who’ve been house-trained for a decade or more may suddenly start pooping or peeing on the carpet or other inappropriate places.

Some older dogs may begin suffering from incontinence as their bladders and bowels lose function with age, but for dogs with sundowner syndrome, the problem may be cognitive, rather than physiological.

Irritability

Many dogs with sundowners syndrome become quite cranky as the disease progresses. Some owners even complain that their normally sweet and affectionate dog begins snapping at people. Many dogs with sundowners also become less tolerant of other pets.

Anxiety

The cognitive decline associated with sundowners syndrome may cause some dogs to feel nervous or anxious more often than normal. Changes in your dog’s daily routine may make his anxiety worse, so it’s often wise to avoid drastic changes whenever possible and to maintain a consistent daily schedule.

Sleep-Cycle Disturbances

Dogs with sundowners syndrome may begin waking up much earlier or later than usual or have difficulty staying asleep. Some may even begin sleeping during the day and staying up most of the night.

Occasionally, dogs with sundowners may even exhibit behaviors that are reminiscent of sleepwalking.

Impaired Communication

Dogs with sundowner syndrome may begin having trouble obeying simple and familiar commands. Afflicted dogs may also begin barking or trying to get your attention in other ways, without an obvious reason for doing so.

Other Behavioral Changes

There are a variety of other behavioral changes that may afflict dogs with sundowners, and each case is unique. Many of the behavioral changes you’re likely to notice will be subtle and difficult to describe.

Just remember to trust your instincts; if you believe your dog is acting strangely, he probably is. You know your pet better than anyone else does.

Which Dogs Are at Risk of Sundowners?

Any dog can suffer from sundowners syndrome, but it appears to be more common among some breeds than others. Specifically, it seems more likely to occur in small breeds, who usually live longer than their larger counterparts.

For example, Great Danes, Irish Wolfhounds, and other giant breeds typically live relatively short lives and age very quickly. By contrast, Chihuahuas, Poodles, and other toy breeds may reach 16 years of age or more, and they often experience a more gradual aging process.

Think about it this way: Most dogs would probably suffer from sundowners syndrome eventually. But, due to varying canine lifespans, it doesn’t always have time to manifest.

Treatment Strategies for Dogs with Sundowners Syndrome

There isn’t a cure for sundowners, so most treatment strategies seek to address the symptoms. The goal is generally to keep your dog as comfortable as possible while limiting the most troubling problems as best you can.

Contact your vet if you suspect your dog may be suffering from sundowners syndrome and discuss the various treatments available. Your vet’s recommendations will vary based on your pet’s specific troubles, but some of the most helpful treatment strategies are detailed below.

Medications

There are a few medications that are sometimes helpful for treating dogs with sundowners syndrome. For example, anti-anxiety medications may be prescribed for dogs who have trouble relaxing, or antidepressants may be prescribed for dogs that seem to be withdrawing, sleeping more than usual, or losing interest in food.

Some vets may administer Selegiline or other medications that will help improve the dopamine levels in your dog’s brain. Some of these medications may even help protect your dog’s brain cells from further damage.

Dietary Changes

Many dog food manufacturers now market recipes that are specifically designed for seniors. Often, these foods have increased antioxidant content, which may help to protect an older dog’s body from the free radicals that damage brain cells.

Many senior diets also address other common problems seniors face. For example, they’ll often feature smaller kibble pieces to make it easier for older dogs to chew. They may also feature a bit more fiber, to help improve digestive performance (which may also help limit accidents).

Supplements

There are a few over-the-counter supplements that may prove helpful for dogs suffering sundowners syndrome. Talk to your vet before starting any type of supplement regimen, but some of the most common and helpful ones you may want to consider include:

  • Melatonin may be useful for helping ease your dog’s anxiety and promoting proper sleep cycles.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids may help protect your dog’s joints and help him get around more easily.
  • Probiotics can help regulate your dog’s digestive function. They may also help prevent accidents.

Lifestyle Changes

Many of the best ways to help dogs suffering from sundowners syndrome involve simple lifestyle changes, which you can implement at home fairly easily. Some of the most common strategies include:

  • Make sure your dog has a very comfortable bed. Because many dogs with sundowners experience sleeping disorders, you’ll want to do everything you can to help your pup get a good night’s sleep. A memory-foam bed is a good start, but you may want to opt for a heated bed if he suffers from joint problems.
  • Limit anxiety-causing activities as much as possible. Try to let your dog live as calm a life as you can to help prevent unnecessary anxiety. Don’t introduce new pets to the home at this time, be sure to give him a good crate he can retreat into when he’s feeling overwhelmed, and let him stay close by your side as often as he needs.
  • Avoid rearranging furniture unnecessarily. Many dogs with sundowners experience memory problems, so don’t make things any tougher on your pooch than you have to. Try to leave the furniture (and other obstacles in the house) in the same places they always have been. Unless, that is, your home is particularly crowded or cluttered. In such cases, it may make sense to remove some items to free up a bit of space and make it easier for him to get around.
  • Continue to stimulate his mind. Try to keep those neurons in your dog’s brain firing by continuing to provide him with toys (puzzle toys or treat-dispensing toys for added engagement), letting him explore new areas (obviously, with supervision), and working on his commands and tricks. You can even try to teach him new commands, just be aware that he may not pick them up very quickly (if at all).
  • Go on more frequent walks. Walking more often will not only provide your pup with exercise. It’ll also keep his brain busy as he smells all of the interesting things outside and help empty him out regularly, thereby reducing the chance of accidents. Just be careful not to overdo it: Several short walks are probably better than a few long walks.
  • Fit your dog with a belly band or diaper to help prevent accidents. Some older dogs may still struggle to “hold it” no matter how many walks you take, so a protective garment may be the best way to address the issue. Belly bands may help prevent male dogs from tinkling on the carpet, but girls (and boys with pooping problems) will require a full dog diaper.

Don’t Forget to Address the Common Age-Related Problems Most Dogs Experience

Sundowners syndrome is probably not the only challenge your older dog faces; he’ll likely also be suffering from common age-related ailments, such as canine arthritis, loss of sight due to cataracts, and more. Don’t forget to treat these issues, so your pal will enjoy more good days than bad.

For example, you may want to provide your dog with booties. These can help dogs get a better grip on slick floors, which will not only make him feel more confident while walking around, but it may prevent falls too. And don’t forget to keep his nails trimmed properly, as long nails can alter the way he stands, which can, in turn, exacerbate any arthritic pain he experiences.

You may also want to pick up some dog stairs (or build your own dog ramp) to give him easy access to beds and couches so that he doesn’t have to jump up and inflame his aching joints. Your dog may also appreciate a warm dog sweater or coat during winter walks (or while just laying around the house).

Dogs with Sundowners Syndrome

Sundowners syndrome is clearly a difficult and heartbreaking problem to face, but if you work with your veterinarian and make a few easy lifestyle changes, you can likely make your dog’s final years almost as enjoyable as his first few years.

One final note: Don’t forget to take care of your own emotional health and well-being during this time. Sundowners syndrome is a bummer of a diagnosis, and you’ll want to deal with the sadness it’s likely to cause.

Let yourself grieve for a few days or weeks, talk to a counselor or close friend if you need to, and spend some time remembering all of the wonderful memories you’ve made with your pooch.

Then, once you’ve gathered your strength, pull yourself up by the bootstraps and try to figure out the best way to take care of your buddy. He needs you now more than ever before, and this is your chance to repay all of the unconditional love he’s given you. Time is limited, and you’ll want to make every remaining day one to remember.

Have you ever had to care for a dog with sundowners syndrome? What types of treatments and care strategies proved most helpful for you and your pet? Let us know in the comments below.

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Written by

Ben Team

Ben is the senior content editor for K9 of Mine and has spent most of his adult life working as a wildlife educator and animal-care professional. Ben’s had the chance to work with hundreds of different species, but his favorite animals have always been dogs. He currently lives in Atlanta, GA with his spoiled-rotten Rottweiler named J.B. Chances are, she’s currently giving him the eyes and begging to go to the park.

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Tonya

My sweet dog Ben is going through this now after just recently being diagnosed with Cushings Syndrome and also having heart disease since 3 years ago. It breaks my heart he just walks into walls or corners and then stands and stares etc… he’s getting worse and it makes me sad. Sending prayers to anyone who is dealing with this.

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Ben Team

Sorry to hear about your pup, Tonya.
Please give him some scritches from us.

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Michelle Williams

My miniature poodle will be 19 years old May 2021 – for the last couple of months he has begun winding “up” around 8pm every night – crying and pacing until the early hours – once he falls asleep he sleeps for a few hours and then wakes up completely normal. This goes on night after night and I was worried this anxiety and lack of sleep will accelerate his decline. I have been sleeping on the floor next to him for weeks to keep him calm as he no longer wants to sleep on the bed with us and if he wakes in the night he immediately starts crying out, pacing around, and doesn’t really seem to be fully aware of where he is or what he’s doing. Although I have had him to the Vet several times in the last few months, and my vet is absolutely awesome, they are just not hearing me and are only focusing on his age as a problem. His senility is slowly progressing but he is otherwise in good condition. I was telling a woman at my office, whose mother has dementia, about his nighttime behaviour and she immediately suggested he had Sundowners, as all of his symptoms mimic her mothers (even though he is a dog). I did the research and have no doubt this is his problem. With this knowledge I was able to help him by turning the lights in our condo on before the light faded outside. By 8:10pm he is now asleep and once he is sleeping deeply enough I am able to carry him to our bed. We sleep with the lights on for now so he doesn’t become anxious if he wakes up in the night. He will wake up around 1am and I will take him outside so he can relieve himself and then are able to put him in his bed in the living room and he will sleep until we wake him in the morning (we can get a few hours in with the lights off at this point and I can now sleep in my bed). Thank you for taking the time to put the information on your page together – it is really invaluable and makes me hopeful that we can keep him comfortable for the time he has left with us and hopefully anyone reading this may also benefit by making small adjustments that they wouldn’t have otherwise thought to do. Thanks again and many best wishes to everyone awesome enough to be giving their old dog the loving care they need at this time.

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Ben Team

Hey, Michelle.
We’re so glad you found something that works for your little fella! And we agree — sometimes tiny little changes (although sleeping with the lights on probably isn’t easy!) will make all the difference.
On behalf of your pooch, we sincerely thank you for everything you’ve done to keep him comfortable and feeling safe.
We hope your little guy continues to do reasonably well, and we wish you both nothing but the best.

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Susan

Thank you so much for this very informative article. Our 13 year old CotonDeTule has recently started with most of the symptoms outlined. Very reminiscent of my Aunts Sundowning that we dealt with a few years ago. We are waiting for vet to call us back with blood work results. However, while there might be other issues our boy is definitely declining. Thank you for your valuable insight it will help us make Simba’s last years one last adventure to embark on.

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Meg Marrs

Sorry you have to go through this Susan, I’m glad we were able to help.

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JILL BROWN

My little Maltese girl is 13 and showing signs of dementia. She’s definitely a Sundowner. She screeches and cries all night. She seems to prefer the darkness rather than light. She’s on dog Xanax, but once she gets in a barking cycle, it doesn’t help. I get up with her and go into the den and watch television (at 3:00 a.m.) until she falls asleep. It’s sad to watch her declining like this.

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Lyn McGraw

My dog has just been diagnosed with the likely hood of having Sundowners Syndrome. Heart breaking for me as a beloved owner of my 14 year old terrier mix. He has had one episode, which took us to the vet, but since then appears to be his normal, though old, self. My question is, is this normal – one episode, but eventually more and more? Or maybe (hopefully) he was incorrectly diagnosed?

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Ben Team

Hey, Lyn. We’re so sorry to hear about your dog’s diagnosis.
Sundowners is normally progressive, but we don’t want to give you any false hope. We’d just recommend calling your vet and asking.
Our fingers are crossed for you.

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Sandy

very helpful to read. My dog has just started experiencing many of these symptoms and its so sad. Not sure how to calm him down. Going to start Senilife and already started melatonin. He paces all night and seems extremely agitated and restless. This article really helped me understand what to do for him.

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Diane Galata

My silkie mix doesn’t respond to any meds including Chloracalm… she is up all night frantically digging in my bed or wherever she is. Constantly in motion, cruising the perimeter of the room, behind curtains, under the bed, crawling across my body and head (she shares a bed with me). Neither of us has slept in weeks … A little Valium just slowed her down but did not do anything for her waking patterns. She also has heart disease and diabetes, and I pray her little body gives out soon because I know she is miserable and I wouldn’t have the heart to end it for her.

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Ben Team

We’re so sorry your pooch is having such a tough time, Diane.
Kudos for doing everything you can to keep her comfortable, and we wish you both the best.

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Judy Alexander

Thank you for a very interesting and informative article. My baby has sundowner disease, not only in the evening but sometimes in the a.m.. some of your advice will be helpful, some we already do use. Again thank you, all help will make this easier, I hope. I love her so much!

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Amy Wurst

I have a senior collie who is 12-1/2. She started exhibiting sundowner’s syndrome about a year ago. Vet recommended Senilife and Melatonin which have been very helpful.

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Meg Marrs

So glad that they’ve helped! It’s rough seeing your dog go through that for sure.

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Sandy Sisson

oil? My vet has started this for my dog who started recently pacing and barking all night. I am really hoping it helps. Think I will try CBD too. I use it and love it. What brand do you buy?

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Laura

Our 12 year old has been showing signs at night. He cries to come in and acts super anxious, if we have to leave him out he has been chewing and knocking down our fences and getting in the neighbors yard. I’ve tried CBD treats, melatonin and nothing seems to work. Haven’t had a potty issues yet

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Meg Marrs

Hey Laura – does your dog usually sleep outside? Maybe it’s time to try indoor sleeping, he might just be getting too anxious for sleeping outside. Alternatively, you could try a dog house that provides a bit more security and comfort at night if he needs to sleep outside exclusively.

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RC

We started giving our 13yr old German shepherd mix CBD oil and it has helped with night time anxiety. He can sleep most of the night. We were up 3-4 times a night to let him out to go to bathroom, now 1x a night. He does start pacing and panting about 4-6pm but that’s about the time we give him his CBD oil. Hope this helps someone give their fur baby an alternative medicine.

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Ashley

I’ve been supporting my 11 year old golden retriever through this the last year. He’s such a good dog and for him, he’s showing mostly confusion and anxiety. He’s constantly staring and panting like he’s asking for something but not able to communicate. When it was really bad he was barking at the walls at night. Our vet prescribed xanax as needed. I saw the most significant improvements when I switched him to Purina Bright Minds. He still shows symptoms from time to time and some evenings are worse than others, but he is no longer barking at the walls and he seems like a happier dog.

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Ben Team

Hey, Ashley. So sorry your pooch is having trouble, but we’re glad the meds and food seem to be helping.
Thanks for sharing your pup’s story with us.

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Mary

Hi I have a 15 year old sheltie this passed year he lost his hearing and now his eye sight it freaks him out it’s worst at night he runs bumps into thing all the time .

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Ben Team

Sorry, Mary. That sounds heartbreaking. Just be sure to work with your vet and do what you can to keep your pooch loved and comfortable.
Best wishes.

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Willow

Thank you for this article. It provided a lot of great information. I believe this is what our senior dog is struggling with at night. It is exhausting and distressing for us to watch her go though this. We will try some of the ideas to see if they help.

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Ben Team

Hey, Willow. Sorry to hear your pooch is struggling, but we’re glad we could help in some small way. Definitely try out the recommendations provided and let us know how they work out.
Best of luck with your furry one.

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debbie

Thank you for all your insight. After four dogs, this is the first time dealing with this syndrome. It’s been exhausting and challenging, and your article helped me a lot.

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Ben Team

Glad we could help in some small way, Debbie. Best of luck with your pooch.

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David Schneider

My soon to be 8 year old Bearded Collie suddenly began trying to sleep on my head last week. As he had just started medication for a bout of nausea, I thought it might be the cause of his strange behavior. However, after reading several links on doggie dementia, I recognized other minor symptoms that have been around for some time (compulsively licking the carpet, for one) and have a better understanding of his nighttime need to attach himself to me. We just started him on Bright Mind dog food yesterday which contains some of the recommended supplements for this condition and hope that it will live up to its hype if even a little bit. My reading has given me a better understanding of what is going on and provided me with insight and strategies to help my faithful friend cope with his current challenges. As my heart breaks to see him struggle with this at times, it goes out to all of you who are dealing with the same situation. Thankfully, I am retired and can afford to lose some sleep and more easily provide the amount of attention needed to help him maintain as high a quality of life as possible as we deal with this. All dogs eventually go to heaven and so to, does any person who provides a loving home and companionship to the most faithful friends each of us will ever have. I will let you know when ever I find something that seems to improve his condition and am grateful for anyone that shares successful strategies with the rest of us. As he is currently sleeping comfortably by my side in a fully lit room, I am glad he is finally getting some rest and thank each of you that have shared your information. Bless you all.

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Lynnette

Thank you for this information. We have been wondering about our Shih-Tzu for a while now, & since a friend’s husband has Alzheimer’s I started wondering about sundowners for our dog. Our sweet little girl started having seizures, with 2 in one week, when she was12 yrs old. 2 yrs ago. Our vet said it was most likely a brain mass (aka, tumor), so she was put on anti- seizure meds, & has only had a total of 7 seizures since. She also has congestive heart problems, & is on lasix, so we just keep her comfortable. She seems happy, plays a little, eats, drinks, poops, pees (a lot, & sometimes in the house, which she never did since a puppy.), & until something happens to change this, & she’s sffering, we just take it day by day.

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Kem Barbosa

Thank you so much for your helpful article

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Kathy

What can I do or give to decrease the aggressive behavior. He has not been aggressive all along. He is a 12 year ol Papillon.
He is on Silegiline, omega 3’s, coconut oil, [email protected] (L-theanine based gel for anxiety), and melatonin. Thanks in advance.

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Julie

Our miniature American Eskimo suddenly started with all of the symptoms of Sundowners at age 13 1/2. We started giving him fish oil, coconut oil, ginko biloba, vitamin e, all of the Bs, and zinc and c. Within a week his hearing, responses to us and recognizing us, his pacing all night, and staring at the walls have all reversed. He still is having potty issues amd.will go outside 3-4 times, come in and potty on the floor. This is frustratimg.for us and we r taking him out more and þreating him like we r potty training a puppy, but last few days only small.improvement. He loves to walk but gets scared some at first of traffic or loud noises but I stop and re assure him and off we go again. He is healthy phusicallu, only slight arthritis so it’s so sad to see this. We both had to deal with the loss but now hes recognizing us, playing fetch and just netter. I’m going to order a supplement that contains the bulk of these supplements to simplify it at feeding time, but ar e thrilled with good the results and owe it to him to continue to help for all the joy and friendship he has given us.

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Meg Marrs

I’m so sorry Julie – it’s so hard watching our dogs grow older. Great to hear the vitamins you gave helped, that is remarkable!

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Trudy

Hi i would b interested in the vitamins. My dog sees Vet soon. Showing symptoms of this and im trying to do all i can.

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Doris Kennedy

my llasapoo, the last couple nights is not sleeping at night, standing and staring off in the room. Night before last he flew into my lap and got as close as he could to me chest and neck, shaking, i help him tight and wrapped a blanket around him. i have a salt lamp that has helped til the last couple nights. Any ideas appreciated, email me at doriskae12(at)yahoo.com

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Ben Team

Hey, Doris.
I tweaked your email address just to protect you from the bots.
Best of luck with your pooch!

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Brenda Trapasso

The “Thunder Shirt”, available online and in pet stores, has been magical for our 14 1/2 year old Aussie mix. We also bought the pheromone spray that goes with it and our dog now sleeps like a baby. It’s the best thing! I would recommend trying it for any dog suffering sundowners syndrome.

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Meg Marrs

Great to hear Brenda – I’ve heard tons of stories about the Thunder Shirt helping with firework and thunderstorm anxiety. Interesting to know it helps with sundowners too!

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Nancy

Because that is the medical term used in the U.S. for humans. Sundowners is a medical term not something the writer made up.

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Jenny Haskins

Well that is disgusting. Petty and disparaging for those suffering from Alzheimer’s/age-related dementia, and usurping a perfectly good long-term Australian word. Here we call it ‘Old-timers’.

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Jami Rosa

“Old-Timers’ sounds more ‘disgusting’ to me — it is taking the piss out of the name ‘Alzheimer’s’. When the day goes on, the SUN goes DOWN, therefore it is called, Sundowners. People with this particular brain problem get grumpier as the day goes on.

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Frances

Old timers is demeaning. My mother had Alzheimer’s and now my daughters dog has it. It is Alzheimer’s. It is a medical term.

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Nikki

It’s called sundowning because the symptoms can be very severe in the evening and at night compared to the daytime. Its literal. Sun down. Sleep wake cycle disruption is one of the biggest initial clues to what is going on.

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Nancy

We just put our morkie down for this. After 2 months of trying every drug, supplement, and comfort idea, he was still up alllll night with angst, fear and anxiety. And sleeping the drugs off all day. We couldn’t watch him suffer anymore. It was heartwrenching …..

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Meg Marrs

So sorry for your loss Nancy. It sounds like you did what was best for your dog – he was not living the happy life a good dog deserves 🙁

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Jenny Haskins

WHY “Sundowners”?? In Australia a ‘sundowner’ is a swagman/”tramp” who appears at sundown asking for a feed with promises to work on the morrow.
Why not just say age related dementia???

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Jason

Why is Bob “my uncle”? Why are crocks something people wear here, but wrestle there? What the hell is vegemite? Cultural differences and slang vary so much that even accepted medical terminology can sometimes cross over into totally unrelated slang.

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Anastasia L Alworth

I adopted Queen Bea, Chihuahua at 18, 19 months ago. She is blind and deaf, so the dementia has added another layer of difficulty to her care. Keeping her calm and finding things to enrich her life is limited. She has a specific blanket that I don’t wash as often as I like, but the scent soothes her. We have found peanut butter is a delight, and lots of caresses, kisses and cuddles. I am feeding senior foods and look to add some natural remedies mentioned in the article. Any other added suggestions would be welcome. She is my love and I want her to feel that.

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Andrea

I’ve found hemp oil has greAtly improved her anxiety. No more howling for hours

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Sandy

what kind of hemp oill?

Susan

Thank you for adopting a disabled pet. She is a lucky baby.

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Michelle scott

Typically the symptoms are worse after sunset. That’s how it was explained to me by my vet and certainly how my dogs symptoms were. Eventually it evolved into full blown dementia and we had to put her down. But in the beginning? Only in the evening and often all night long.

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